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4th World Congress on Environmental Toxicology, will be organized around the theme “An Initiative to bring Harmony to the Natural Environment”
Environmental Congress 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Environmental Congress 2020
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The presence or introduction of substances to the environment which are harmful or have a poisonous effect is called environmental pollution. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or can also be created by human activity, but they are considered contaminants when in excess of natural levels. Many things that are necessary to human beings produce pollution. Cars spew pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to produce energy pollutes the air. Industries and homes generate garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water. Pesticides used to kill weeds and insects seep into waterways and harm wild and aquatic life.
There are several types of pollution, and they come from different sources and have different consequences. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Understanding the basics of pollution can help environmentally conscious individuals minimize their contribution to these dangerous effects. These sources of pollution don't simply have a negative impact on the natural world, but they can have a measurable effect on the health of human beings as well.
Toxicology was traditionally known as the “science of poisons”. Toxicology basically is defined as the study of the harmful effects of chemical agents on biological materials. Hence, environmental toxicology deals with the effect of environmental toxicants on the environment and its livings beings. Environmental Toxicants are the agents that are released into the environment, has adverse effects on the health of animals as well as plants.
Regulatory toxicology is the branch of toxicology that uses scientific knowledge to develop regulations and strategies to reduce and control the exposure to dangerous chemicals. The aim is to protect workers, consumers, the public generally and the environment. Regulatory toxicologists help governments to formulate regulations and put them into practice. Their advice and decisions help to minimize the risk presented by chemicals which may be hazardous to human health and the environment. In most countries, the marketing of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals follows this pattern. They may be asked questions by the public, industry, journalists, and politicians, all of whom will expect clear and informative answers.
The Economic toxicology alludes to the unsafe effect engaged with the use of food additives in food preservation and processing, man-made fertilizers and pesticides in advanced agriculture. Poisoning accidentally or occupationally which is so common in the use of synthetic insecticides and the adulteration of foodstuffs by these toxic chemicals are areas of attention in economic toxicology. The Economic toxicology refers to the harmful impact engaged with the utilization of food additives in food preservation and processing, man-made fertilizers and pesticides in advanced agriculture.
The most important risk in agriculture derives from exposure to pesticides. Evaluation of the extensive toxicological studies required for all pesticides. From the past 50 years, agriculture has deeply changed with a massive utilization of pesticides and fertilizers to enhance crop protection and production, food quality and food preservation. Pesticides are unique chemicals as they are intrinsically toxic for several biological targets, are deliberately spread into the environment, and their toxicity has a limited species selectivity. The post-marketing risk assessment takes place during the use of pesticides and aims at assessing the risk for exposed operators.
Climate change occurs when the Climate system o the earth adopts a new and different pattern. The climate system is divided into 5 parts, the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice), biosphere (living things) and lithosphere (earth’s crust and upper mantle). The climate system receives almost all its energy from the sun. It also releases energy to outer space. Hence, there is a balance of incoming and outgoing energy is always maintained. The imbalance in these energies creates a climate change which lasts for a few decades and maybe for millions of years.
Toxicology is the study of adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and their environment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry describes original experimental or theoretical work that significantly advances understanding in the area of environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and hazard/risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry is interdisciplinary topics that integrate the field of toxicology in the environment; environmental, analytical, and molecular chemistry of ecosystem. Some of the naturally occurring environmental toxins include such as lead, mercury, radon, formaldehyde, benzene and cadmium.
Environmental Health Safety is a discipline and specialty that studies and implements practical aspects of environmental protection and safety at work. From an environmental standpoint, it involves creating a systematic approach to complying with environmental regulations, such as managing waste or air emissions all the way to helping sites reduce the company's carbon footprint. From a health & safety standpoint, it involves creating organized efforts and procedures for identifying workplace hazards and reducing accidents and exposure to harmful situations and substances.
The mobility that results from biomagnification is dependent on the persistence of a compound in the environment. Compounds which are persistent and not easily degraded in the physical environment or in organisms are most likely to biomagnify if they have the required properties for bioconcentration. This would imply a lack of significant hydrolysis and photolysis in water, as well as a lack of significant detoxification in the organisms. High lipid solubility results in the storage of the substance in fat reserves in organisms which will often result in the release of potentially toxic concentrations of the substance.
A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. Future climate change and associated impacts will differ from region to region. Anticipated effects include increasing global temperatures, rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics.
Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry applies across the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, use, and ultimate disposal. Green chemistry focuses on the environmental impact of chemistry, including technological approaches to preventing pollution and reducing the consumption of nonrenewable resources.
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, managing and monitoring of waste materials. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on the optimum utilization of the natural resources with social responsibility. It aims at unearthing the recent innovations and developments in this field with a view to check global warming. All the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion. Biotransformation can strongly modify the bioaccumulation of chemicals in an organism. Extensive damage to organisms and declines in wildlife populations have been observed together with long-term bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent xenobiotic chemicals. Heavy metals, especially organic or biomethylated mercury, lead, cadmium and organic tin compounds have caused environmental damage through bioaccumulation on a local scale.
A mutagen is a substance or agent that induces a heritable change in cells or organisms. A carcinogen is a substance that induces unregulated growth processes in cells or tissues of multicellular animals, leading to the disease called cancer. Mutagenesis refers to processes that result in genetic change, and carcinogenesis (the processes of tumor development) may result from mutagenic events. Carcinogenesis is a process where uncontrolled cell division occurs leading to the formation of a malignant tumor. Mutagenesis is a process characterized by a change in the genetic material of an organism by the influence of mutagens. Mutagenesis can occur naturally and leads to cancer.
Health resources include all the staff that is directly or indirectly involved in any health issue concern. The field of health human resources deals with issues such as planning, development, performance, management, retention, information, and research on human resources for the healthcare sector. Health Economics and Public Policies in the field identifying with authority, administration, and organization of public health, health awareness systems, clinics, and doctor's facility systems.
Environmental Compliance covers a broad range of environmental laws, regulations, and standards create to manage our environment. In recent years, environmental concerns have led to a significant increase in the number and scope of compliance imperatives across all global regulatory environments. Being closely related, environmental concerns and compliance activities are increasingly being aligned with corporate performance goals and being integrated to some extent to avoid conflicts, wasteful overlaps, and gaps. Pre-processing, performing calculations and validating the data for compliance with any alert or reporting levels.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiology and Biostatistics apply, develops, and teaches the skills needed to understand the determinants of disease and improve health. The descriptive and analytic approaches (epidemiology) needed to investigate and understand the complex causes of major public health problems and to develop effective strategies to prevent them. The biostatistics program centers on the development and application of theory and methods in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data used in public health and other biomedical sciences.